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& Palestine > Next Story
We just want to live normally
Libby Brooks, Great Britain
January 29, 2002
On a clear morning last autumn, in a village in Arab east Jerusalem, a woman
was screaming. It was a high, desperate note and it jangled through the
stiff air that had yet to be warmed by the bustle of the day. She was
begging for her home, hopelessly.
We watched as the clumsy yellow Caterpillar drilled straight through the
wall of her trim two-storey house. It splintered like a cracker, to the
inexorable crunch of bulldozer tread on rubble. The demolition—one of an
estimated 8,000 across the occupied territories since 1967, which have left
some 40,000 Palestinians homeless—was a desperate affair. A crowd of
Palestinians had gathered on a nearby rooftop to witness the inevitable, as
another home fell to the complex system of zoning, permits and demolitions,
by which Israel maintains its artificial domination over the city of
Jerusalem and beyond. Mainly women, they paced, wept, cursed, turned to one
another, turned away. Here was a domestic tragedy.
The woman's father raved at anyone who would listen. He had sunk his savings into his daughter's house. It was built on his land, expropriated by the Israelis. He had no money left, and no patience. He would martyr himself,
he threatened wildly, strap a bomb around his waist and blow up the lot of
them. The women listened kindly. It was a father's threat to make—a man's
The news that the 20-year-old Palestinian who detonated a suicide bomb in
Jerusalem on Sunday was a woman—the first woman to carry out such an
attack in Israel—has been greeted with incredulity. Extreme acts of
violence have not generally been part of the lexicon of Palestinian women's
struggle. There have been exceptions, notably Leila Khaled, an international
hijacker for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in the 70s
and now an outspoken politician. But Khaled herself has described the battle
to prove that women could be equal to men in armed struggle, to the extent
that "we wanted to be like men—even in our appearance".
But in the villages, and around the checkpoints, the story has been one of
endurance, not extremity. Women have reached a stage where they simply want
to feel safe, says Marina Barham, who lives in the West Bank village of Beit
Jala, near Bethlehem, and runs a local theatre company. "They want their
children and their husband to be safe, in their home, in the street, at
their place of work. They want to live normally, not to be under stress all
the time worrying whether their family will come home safely."
Hope comes down to a street empty of tanks and food on the table. As Israeli incursions continue into the West Bank and Gaza, and the Palestinians'
sphere of movement becomes increasingly limited, the fabric of civil society
is unraveling. Half the Palestinians are now living below the poverty line.
With many men out of work, the responsibility for feeding the family is
increasingly falling to women. The majority of those killed or injured since
the second intifada began in September 2000 are men—and again women are
left to care for the disabled. Widows and those whose husbands are in
prison, become the breadwinners.
The checkpoint regulations out of Bethlehem have changed again, Barham tells me, and there is even further to walk. Last November I watched women trudge past the lines of cars at the checkpoint into Ramallah, mud caking their smart work shoes, or sticking to their heavy shopping bags. And last year, seven women gave birth at checkpoints, unable to reach the hospital in time.
The new regulations make it harder still for the women who work as cleaners
and hotel staff in Jerusalem to reach their jobs. With the Palestinian
administration paralysed by Israeli military strikes and economic sanctions,
young couples take work where they can find it—being a housewife is no
longer an option.
Likewise, politics is about survival. "A lot of women have been involved in
political factions," says Barham, "but over the years women have taken a
different role, and not just a supportive one. During the first intifada, it
was easier for women to take part in protests, though traditionally they
were told that this was not something for women to do. But in this latest
struggle, because the Israelis used guns and tanks so quickly, women have
Instead, women are more likely to want to be involved in community
programmes, she says, working with children, dealing with the grieving and
the traumatised. There have been women's demonstrations in Ramallah,
bringing together intellectuals from the women's studies institute at nearby
Bir Zeit University with those active in local non govermental
organisations. Meanwhile, the likes of Hanan Ashwari and Intisar Al Wazir,
the minister for social affairs in the Palestinian Authority, are gradually
raising women's public profile.
Occupation has a different impact on women than on men, says Barham. "Women
are not just individuals but mothers, sisters, wives. Whatever happens to
their families affects their lives completely and they have to take
responsiblity for it. It is even harder now because they are not only
working inside the house but outside."
Professor Jeff Halper, coordinator of the Israeli committee against house
demolitions, who has studied the effects of demolition on families, agrees.
The violation and ensuing trauma of losing one's home is akin to that of
rape for many women, he says. "For most Palestinian women, the house is
their entire world. Unless they are educated and go out to work, that's the
woman's domain. After the demolition, she will usually have to live with her
husband's family. She has lost her world in a physical sense, and in a
social sense, too, because she is no longer in charge but living in someone
else's house, and has to take on the subordinate status of a daughter to her
Shadia el Sarag tells me that after the bombing on Sunday, the Israeli
military flew so low over Gaza City that the windows in her office smashed.
El Sarag runs a women's empowerment initiative, as part of the Gaza
community mental health programme. The Gaza strip is a miserable place,
saturated with fear and poverty. Refugees bed down in the streets, El Sarag
says, because they are afraid that Israeli tanks will come in the night to
destroy their shacks while they sleep.
More conservative in outlook than the West Bank, more than 35% of women here are in work. But this liberation through necessity has created a fatal
unbalance in relationships, creating an explosion in domestic violence,
mental health problems and "honour killings".
"Unemployed men feel helpless and frustrated, so the women feel they have a
double burden of providing for their family financially and emotionally. The
violence undertaken by Israel against Palestinian men is then revisited on
their wives and children. They have to combat domestic violence as well as
political violence," says El Sarag.
Women are suffering doubly the effects of occupation, says El Sharag, in an
echo of Mairead Farrell, the IRA volunteer who was shot dead by the SAS in
Gibraltar in 1988. She once said: "I'm oppressed as a woman, but I'm also
oppressed because I'm Irish... We can't successfully end our oppression as
women until we first end the oppression of our country."
In the south of Gaza, the situation has become particularly desperate. Women are divorced in absentia by husbands who cannot afford to support them. Sent back to live with her parents, the woman often finds that her children are not welcome there. Prostitution is a final desperate solution—should her
relatives find out, she will be killed to preserve the honour of the family
If women are becoming more radical, argues Fikr Shaltoot, the coordinator of a medical charity in Gaza, it is because of the brutal Israeli action
against the Palestinians. "It is because of what we see day and night: the
destruction of homes, the closures, people killed while they are sleeping,
people dying because the checkpoint won't let an ambulance past to get to
"Many women are depressed and suicidal. If there is a chance for Palestinian women to martyr themselves, then they will. Everyone is very surprised that the Jerusalem bomber was a woman, and perhaps she will be honoured more because of that. But in Palestine there are already many heroines—if a woman has a son handicapped by a shell, if she is widowed, if her husband is imprisoned and she continues to support the family, then she is a heroine for me."
The Guardian (London), January 29, 2002.